Ok, given that you found this page and especially this article I assume you are interested in getting a Phd in Economics.
Now the question, why this guide, aren't there enough there?
Yep I guess there are, but most of them are written by Americans (of the US-kind) for Americans. Given that I am European, this guide will focus more on the details relevant for Europeans. (however forgive me if I make certain statements which might not be true for your special case, my experience is limited to a Dutch university and a lot of second-hand information about German schools).
What I am doing is something you will see a lot within research publications, not coming with something new or great but taking the successful ideas of others and developing them further, filling holes and adding things. Now this is not what you should working for, but hey at least it may get you published….
Already in the beginning I realize how outdated some things might be, since the Netherlands introduced the BA/Ma implying that the timetable I worked on is not really relevant anymore.
Nevertheless first piece of information, Grad School in the US always starts in September, implying that there is only one round of admission per year. This also implies that you have to start getting serious about this at least one year in advance. So coming out of your summer holiday, you realize you will be finished by the summer next year and want to go to Grad School, don't wait, get started.
If you will graduate before that, maybe think about getting a Research position at a University , Research institute or Central Bank (Companies might pay more, but it will most likely not be helpful with your application) or simply take a long vacation (you might need it and you very likely don't have the time during Grad School).
Most of the deadlines are Mid-December to New Year for admission in the following September, so better get going early, it really helps a lot and reduces stress (which you will have regardless how good your timetable planning is….)
A little warning, the whole application process will cost you quite a bit. Calculate something like 70-90 $ for an application (get a credit card, is the easiest, cheapest way to pay for this). Additionally 200-300$ for Standard tests (more about that later), and other smaller costs, like for transcripts, stamps, etc. My total ended up to be just short of 1000$ for the whole thing (but it paid off…;-))